超回路列车

Hyperloop One XP-1型试验车

超回路列车(英语:Hyperloop),又称超级高铁,是一种能在真空管中,高速运输系统乘客或是货物概念的总称,有着比火车和飞机更快的速度,并且使用能源更低。目前该科技还处于研发阶段。这套系统的运输舱运转于减压、近真空的管路中,在磁浮原理的轨道中行驶,运输舱则使用线性感应马达空气压缩机推进,因此能大幅降低阻力,期望能使列车加速达每小时1080公里(670英里)。

企业家伊隆·马斯克 及其所属的SpaceX公司于2012年重新提出新构想,Hyperloop原预定在美国建造,有感于北加州高速铁路的工程缓慢,且造价昂贵。超回路列车白皮书(Hyperloop Alpha )初步概念设计由Tesla及SpaceX二公司的工程师共同完成,而其设计文件最初是发布在Tesla and SpaceX公司的部落格上,并最终在2013年8月向大众公开。此版本的Hyperloop被称之为Hyperloop alpha,其中记载了仅供载客的版本造价为60亿美元,而能同时提供载客和车辆运输的版本造价则为75亿美元,也就是指说只有高速铁路的十分之一。多位运输工程师在2013年对规划中的加州路线预算提出质疑,评估建设的规模和科技的不确定风险后,质疑者认为预算总金额过低且不切实际。超回路列车在技术和经济上的可行性并未有前例可实证,且仍有许多争论[5][6][7][8]

初期设计文件中规划了一条概念路线,以洛杉矶区域为起点,开往旧金山湾区,大部分的路线与5号州际公路平行。初步分析显示此路线旅程的总运转时间为35分钟,路线总长354-英里(570-公里),列车平均时速为598英里每小时(962公里每小时),最高时速则为760英里每小时(1,220公里每小时)。

2015年10月下旬,超级高铁有限公司(HTT)[9]正式宣布将在2016年初开始第一阶段的工程,将在旧金山至洛杉矶间的中段位置,加利福尼亚州金斯郡境内建造一段耗资60亿美元、可运转的正式轨道。

历史

理论和运转方式

超回路列车的运送舱行驶于几乎真空状态的管道中,每舱可搭乘28人,在管道中以电磁悬浮原理推动运送舱高速前进,每舱配有排气系统,减少摩擦力。运送舱前方亦配有大型风扇,吸气排向后方减轻风阻。

初始设计概念

建议路线

Interstate 5

 美国

 印度

其他国家

火星

开源设计演进

乘坐舒适度考量

高速列车转向时会产生一定的向心力,要达到舒适的程度,轨道曲线的半径不可少于9公里,意味系统需要异常地笔直与精确,也不能有山地与都市等障碍物挡住路轨,这限制了超回路列车,特别是在人口分布均匀密集、地势高低起伏多、频发地震的地区的实际应用。[92]

另外近真空的管道系统在建设上难度与成本相对于火车高出不少,相当于隧道的造价,可能导致其单程票价也会在成本问题下不敌航空运输,难以营利与投资建设。车厢空间方面,由于抽气扇设计,车厢前后间距必须很短,多节车也无法以常态存在,对车内载电池的能力要求也很高(管路没有电力线接触,最多只能磁感应),同时还要支持车厢内的封闭维生系统,沿途行车安全出口、停等车站等重要设计考量也尚未构思,极待解决。

该领域公司

维珍超回路列车

2016年11月,维珍集团位于美国拉斯维加斯的Hyperloop One (与伊隆·马斯克无关) & Hyperloop Genesis 与杜拜签署协议,开始进行可行性分析研究如何建造杜拜阿布达比超回路列车。

至2020年11月时,已进行过高达400多次无人试验,11月首次载人测试成功。预计2025年完成安全认证,2030年正式营运,未来将以时速1000公里甚至1080公里的速度来运送乘客及货物。[93][94]

超级高铁有限公司

在2018年,超级高铁有限公司[9](HTT)成功研发出了世界第一台超回路列车的车厢。车厢长32公尺,每次载客量为28至50位乘客。而且设计能以时速1216公里的超快时速行驶。 2019年,超级高铁有限公司在法国南方的土鲁斯兴建一条长达320公尺的测试轨道

TransPod

DGWHyperloop

Arrivo

Hardt Global Mobility

Hyper Chariot

Zeleros

Hyper Poland

超回路列车路线竞赛

2016年,Virgin Hyperloop 举办了一个跨世界的竞,邀请了世界各地的设计团队,对不同地方进行评估,选出世界各国最适合兴建超回路列车的地。选拔从2600个候选者,然后缩减至35个入围者,最后在各方评比下选出10个优秀路线。这些团队将能够与 Virgin Hyperloop 进行合作。

超回路列车运送舱竞赛

从2015年开始每年都由SpaceX主办,让大学生设计并打造小尺寸的超回路列车的运送舱,进阶者作品能在实际的低压管内试跑。 拥有最快速度者,为该届比赛冠军。于2016 SpaceX在其加州总部旁搭建约1.6 km(1英里)长的试验低压管,尺寸比白皮书中的略小。SpaceX于该年网站上声明:「SpaceX或是马斯克并无与任何其他公司有关系。SpaceX并不是为了商业化目的而举办,而是要支持促进超回力列车运送舱原型的设计速度。[95]

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外部连结

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