贡语

贡语
Ugong
区域 泰国西部
族群 500 (2000?)[1]
母语使用人数 80(2000, David Bradley[2]
语系
汉藏语系
文字 泰文
语言代码
ISO 639-3 ugo
Glottolog ugon1239[3]
ELP Ugong

贡语,或称'Ugong,Ugong,拉瓦(Lawa)或Ugawng(其中的U的意思是人),是泰国西部一种濒临灭绝的藏缅语,在乌泰他尼府素攀武里府几个孤立的方言岛还有人会说。

历史

1920年代,西方人第一次了解到贡人,那时这种语言就被认为处于严重衰退的状态(Kerr 1927)。1970年代, David Bradley 开始研究这门语言,当时仅仅只有几个地方还有人会说这种语言了,甚至比大约50年前发现的时候还要少2个。由于泰国电力公司要在Khwae Yai河Khwae Noi河上上建设大坝,贡人被迫从两个村庄离开,。本来会说种语言的人就在不断减少,语言学家们认为这种语言已经脆弱到即将灭绝了。1970年代,还有会说这种语言的儿童,但现在孩子们已经把泰语作为第一语言。

分类

贡语在藏缅语内部的分类还没有确定,虽然布拉德利(1989)认为它在缅彝语群中非常独特,既不适合放在缅语支,也不适合放在彝语支

方言

贡语有两种方言(根据Ethnologue的说法)。

  • Khok Khwai village, Uthai Thani Province (moribund); documented by Rujjanavet (1986)
  • Kok Chiang village, Suphan Buri Province (endangered and now dispersed); documented by Thawornpat (2006) and David Bradley

曾经在北碧府也有人会说贡语,但现在已经灭绝了。两种贡语方言(namely Lawa of Kwê Yai and Lawa of Kwê Noi)的词汇表是由A. F. G Kerr(1927)在北碧府收集的。

分布

贡人现在居住在下面三个村庄。

  • Lawa Wang Khwai village, Wang Yao Subdistrict (วังยาว), Dan Chang District, Suphanburi Province (3户)。
  • Kok Chiang village, Huai Khamin Subdistrict (ห้วยขมิ้น), Dan Chang District, Suphanburi Province (36户)。
  • Khok Khwai village (คอกควาย), Thong Lang Subdistrict (ทองหลาง), Huai Khot District, Uthai Thani Province (15户)。reported as Baan Lawa village 3 in Wright, et al. (1991).[5]

有大约500个贡人和50个还会说贡语。在他们生活的区域也有很多Lao Krang人。

以前生活的地方

贡人以前分布的更加广阔,在Khwae Noi River, Khwae Yai River和Bo Phloi River流域都能找到[5] It was reportedly spoken in locations including:[5]。 据报告包括以下这些地方:

  • Kanchanaburi Province
    • Lat Ya (northwest of Kanchanaburi town)
    • Thong Pha Phum District (located along the Khwae Noi River)
    • Ban Lawa (located several kilometres downriver along the Khwae Noi River, from the former location of Sangkhlaburi near the Three Pagodas Pass)
    • Sao Hong, 10 kilometres south of Bo Phloi
    • Phanom Thuan District
    • Bo Phloi, Nong Pling, Lam Iso, Nong Li (หนองรี), and Nong Plue
    • Khlot Khoi[6]
  • Suphanburi Province
    • Tumakok, Dan Chang District, Suphanburi Province (now an ethnic Karen township; originally settled by Gong people from Talao/Hin Hak during the 1800's)
    • Sanakphai, Suphanburi Province
    • Wang Khwai (known in Ugong as Kabe and in Lao as Kapheun), Suphanburi Province
  • Uthai Thani Province
    • Ban Bung (บ้านบึง), Ban Rai District (near district headquarters)
    • Thong Lang, Huai Khot District
    • Iphung, Cawat, and Huai Haeng (exact locations uncertain)

在北碧府,很多贡人和克伦人和孟人通婚[5]。由于大坝的建设,Sisawat and Sangkhlaburi已经被水淹没,会说这种语言的人也四散到其他地方。到1991年,北碧府已经二三十年没有会说贡语的人了,大部分的贡人改说泰语或克伦语[6]

语法

贡语是SOV语序。

参见

  • 贡语词汇表 (维基词典)

注释和参考资料

  1. ^ Gordon, Raymond G.; Barbara F. Grimes (编). Ethnologue: Languages of the World 15th. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. 2005. 
  2. ^ 贡语于《民族语》的连结(第18版,2015年)
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (编). Ugong. Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 2016. 
  4. ^ Mayuree, Thawornpat. 2006. Gong: An endangered language of Thailand. Doctoral dissertation, Mahidol University.
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Bradley, David (1989). Dying to be Thai: Ugong in western Thailand. La Trobe Working Papers in Linguistics 2:19-28.
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Wright, Sue; Audra Phillips; Brian Migliazza; Paulette Hopple; and Tom Tehan. 1991. SIL Working Summary of Loloish Languages in Thailand. m.s.
  • Daniel Nettle and Suzanne Romaine. Vanishing Voices: The Extinction of the World's Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Page 10.
  • Thawornpat, Mayuree. 2006. Gong: An endangered language of Thailand. Doctoral dissertation, Mahidol University.
  • Thawornpat, Mayuree. 2007. Gong phonological characteristics. The Mon-Khmer Studies Journal 37. 197-216.

延伸阅读

  • Bradley, David. 1993. Body Parts Questionnaire (Ugong)页面存档备份,存于网际网路档案馆). (unpublished ms. contributed to STEDT).
  • Bradley, David. The disappearance of the Ugong in Thailand. Investigating Obsolescence. 1989: 33–40. ISBN 9780521324052. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511620997.006. 
  • Bradley, David (1989). Dying to be Thai: Ugong in western Thailand. La Trobe Working Papers in Linguistics 2:19-28
  • Kerr, A. F. G. 1927. "Two 'Lawā' vocabularies: the Lawā of the Baw Lūang plateau; Lawā of Kanburi Province." Journal of the Siam Society 21: 53-63.
  • Rujjanavet, Pusit. (1986). The Phonology of Ugong in Uthaithani Province. M.A. Thesis in Linguistics, Faculty of Graduate Studies, Mahidol University.
  • Thawornpat, Mayuree. "Gong phonological characteristics", in Mon-Khmer studies: a journal of Southeast Asian languages and cultures, Thailand: Mon-Khmer Studies, 2007.

外部连结

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