欧托-曼格语系

欧托-曼格语系
Oto-Manguean
地理分布 中美洲
谱系学分类 世界上的主要语系之一
分支
Oto-Pamean
Chinantecan
Tlapanecan
Manguean
Popolocan
Zapotecan
Amuzgoan
Mixtecan
ISO 639-5 omq
Otomanguean Languages.png

欧托-曼格语系(Oto-Manguean languages、Otomanguean)是一个包含多个美洲原住民语言的大语系。现在只有墨西哥的原住民仍然在使用着。但是在过去,欧托-曼格语系的Manguean最南分布到尼加拉瓜哥斯大黎加。现在使用人数最多的两个语支是位于墨西哥瓦哈卡州萨波特克人米斯特克人,合共约150万人。在墨西哥中部,特别是在墨西哥州伊达尔戈州克雷塔罗州有约50万人在使用欧托-曼格语系的Otomi和十分接近的Mazahua语言。一些欧托-曼格语系语言正濒临灭绝。例如,Ixcatec与Matlatzinca这两个语言各剩下不到250人的使用人口,而且绝大部分是老年人。其他的位于墨西哥以外的曼格语言已经灭绝,当中包括Chiapanec语言,这是最近才宣布灭绝的。而与Me'phaa最接近的灭绝语言Subtiaba,只有在20世纪初才有过它的记述。

欧托-曼格语系是中美洲语种最多与分布最广泛的一个语系。内部的多样性可以堪比印度-欧罗巴语系,而原始欧托-曼格语言据估计在公元前2000年前就已经开始被使用。这就是说起码在过去的4000年里,欧托-曼格语系已经与中美洲的其他语言共存并发展出共同的特性。在这样的程度上,已经可以将它们看作是一个语言区域,称作中美洲语言区。然而欧托-曼格语系同时因多个特色脱颖而出于其他的中美洲语系。它是北美洲和中美洲唯一的所有语言均为声调语言的语系。同时让欧托-曼格语系脱颖而出的是它比其它的中美洲语言拥有更多分析语结构。另一个典型特点是,欧托-曼格语系基本上都是以VSO(谓主宾结构)作为语序的。

语系概观

《欧托-曼格语系》系谱分类
语系 语群 语言 使用语言的约略数
欧托-曼格语系
西欧托-曼格语群 Oto-Pame–Chinantecan Oto-Pamean Otomis (Hñähñu) (several varieties) Central México (c. 212,000)
Mazahua (Hñatho) México (state) (c. 350,000)
Matlatzinca México (state). Two varieties: Ocuiltec–Tlahuica (c. 450) and Matlatzinca de San Francisco (c. 1,300)
Pame San Luis Potosí. Three varieties: Southern Pame (presumed to have no speakers), Central Pame (c. 5,000), Northern Pame (c. 5,000).
Chichimeca Jonaz Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí (c. 1,500)
Chinantecan Chinantec northern Oaxaca and southern Veracruz, (c. 224,000)
Tlapanec–Mangue Tlapanecan Tlapanec (Me'phaa) Guerrero (c. 75,000)
Subtiaba (†) Honduras
Manguean Chiapanec (†) Chiapas
Mangue (†) Nicaragua
Chorotega (†) Costa Rica
东欧托-曼格语群 Popolocan–Zapotecan Popolocan Mazatec north-eastern Oaxaca and Veracruz (c. 206,000)
Ixcatec northern Oaxaca (< 100)
Chocho northern Oaxaca (< 1000)
Popolocan Southern Puebla, (c. 30,000)
Zapotecan 萨波特克语 (约有50种方言) Central and eastern Oaxaca (c. 785,000)
Chatino Oaxaca (c. 23,000)
Papabuco Oaxaca
Soltec Oaxaca
Amuzgo–Mixtecan[1] Amuzgoan Amuzgo (around 4 variants) Oaxaca y Guerrero (c. 44,000)
Mixtecan Mixtecs (around 30 variants) central, southern and western Oaxaca; southern Puebla and eastern Guerrero (c. 511,000)
奎卡特克语 Cuicatlán, Oaxaca, (c. 18,500)
特里基语 (亦称"特里奎语"(Triqui)) 西瓦哈卡州(约23,000人)

参考文献

Bartholomew, Doris. Some revisions of Proto-Otomi consonants. International Journal of American Linguistics. October 1960, 26 (4): 317–329. doi:10.2307/1263552. 
Brinton, Daniel G. Notes on the Mangue; An Extinct Dialect Formerly Spoken in Nicaragua. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 1886, 23 (122): 238–257. 
Brown, Cecil H. Paleobiolinguistics of New World Crops and the Otomanguean Language Family. Ethnobiology Letters. 2015, 6 (1): 189–191. doi:10.14237/ebl.6.1.2015.436. 
Campbell, Lyle. American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America (Oxford Studies in Anthropological Linguistics, 4). New York: Oxford University Press. 1997. ISBN 0-19-509427-1. 
Fernández de Miranda, Mariá Teresa; Roberto J. Weitlaner. Sobre Algunas Relaciones de la Familia Mangue 3. 1961: 1–99.  |journal=被忽略 (帮助); |issue=被忽略 (帮助)
Kaufman, Terrence; Justeson, John. Historical linguistics and pre-columbian Mesoamerica. Ancient Mesoamerica. 2009, 20: 221–231. doi:10.1017/S0956536109990113. 
Merrifield, William R. Proto Otomanguean kinship. International Museum of Cultures Publication, 11. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics. 1981. 
Newman, Stanley; Weitlaner, Roberto. Central Otomian I:Proto-Otomian reconstructions. International Journal of American Linguistics. 1950a, 16 (1): 1–19. JSTOR 1262748. doi:10.1086/464056. 
Newman, Stanley; Weitlaner, Roberto. Central Otomian II:Primitive central otomian reconstructions. International Journal of American Linguistics. 1950b, 16 (2): 73–81. JSTOR 1262851. doi:10.1086/464067. 
Rensch, Calvin. Classification of the Oto-Manguean Languages and the position of Tlapanec. David Oltrogge and Calvin Rensch (eds.) (编). Two Studies in Middle American Comparative Linguistics (PDF). Publications in Linguistics, Publication Number 55. Summer Institute of Linguistics. 1977: 53–108 [2018-07-10]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2012-10-15). 
Sapir, Edward. The Hokan affinity of Subtiaba in Nicaragua. American Anthropologist. New Series. 1925, 27 (3,4): 402–435, 491–527. doi:10.1525/aa.1925.27.3.02a00040. 
Sicoli, Mark A. Oto-Manguean languages. Philipp Strazny (编). Encyclopedia of Linguistics. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn. 2005: 797–800. 
Soustelle, Jacques. La familia Otomí-Pame del México central. Sección de Obras de Historia. Nilda Mercado Baigorria (trans.) Translation of: "La famille Otomí-Pame du Mexique central", doctoral thesis. México, D.F.: Centro de Estudios Mexicanos y Centroamericanos, Fondo de Cultura Económica. 1993 [1937]. ISBN 968-16-4116-7 (西班牙语). : Suárez, Jorge A. El tlapaneco como lengua Otomangue (MS). México, D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México. 1977 (西班牙语). 
Suárez, Jorge A. The Mesoamerican Indian Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1983. ISBN 0-521-22834-4. 
Longacre, Robert E. Systemic Comparison and Reconstruction. Norman A. McQuown (Volume ed.) (编). Handbook of Middle American Indians, Vol. 5: Linguistics. R. Wauchope (General Editor). Austin: University of Texas Press. 1968: 117–159. ISBN 0-292-73665-7. OCLC 277126. 
Longacre, Robert E. On Linguistic Affinities of Amuzgo. International Journal of American Linguistics. 1966, 32 (1): 46–49. doi:10.1086/464878. 
Josserand, J. Kathryn; Winter, Marcus; Hopkins, Nicholas (eds.). Essays in Otomanguean Culture History. Nashville, Tennessee: Vanderbilt University Publications in Anthropology. 1984.  |issue=被忽略 (帮助)

外部连结

Template:Oto-Manguean languages
Template:Mesoamerican families

  1. ^ Evidence for this grouping has never been published.

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