日本-琉球语系

日本-琉球语系
Japanese-Ryukyuan
使用族群 大和族琉球族
地理分布 日本琉球帛琉
谱系学分类 世界主要语系之一
分支
ISO 639-5 jpx
Glottolog japo1237[1]
Japanese dialects-ja.png

日本-琉球语系(英语:Japanese-Ryukyuan languages),或称日本语系(英语:Japonic languages),是世界主要语系之一,包含日语琉球语两大分支,使用人口约1.25亿。

介绍

关于日本语与其它语言语系的关系到目前为止由学者们提出过许多理论:

  • 日琉语系:日琉语系这个概念最早由美国的日本学者莱昂·塞拉芬提出[2],后来这一概念受到国际语言学者的普遍接受,根据日琉同祖论,日琉语系的所有语言的祖语都是原始日语(Proto-Japonic)[3]

分类

日语

  • 日语jpn
    • 八丈方言
    • 东日本方言
      • 北海道方言
      • 东北方言
        • 北奥羽方言
        • 南奥羽方言
      • 关东方言
        • 东关东方言
        • 西关东方言
        • 东京方言
      • 东海东山方言
        • 长野、山梨、静冈方言
        • 越后方言
        • 岐阜、爱知方言
    • 西日本方言
      • 北陆方言
      • 近畿方言
      • 四国方言
      • 中国方言
        • 东山阳方言
        • 西中国方言
        • 东山阴方言
      • 云伯方言
    • 九州方言
      • 丰日方言
      • 肥筑方言
      • 萨隅方言
    • 琉球日语

琉球语

人造语言

星界的纹章》中所用的人工语言亚维语亦被其作者归入本语系内。

参见

参考文献

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (编). 日本-琉球语系. Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 2016. 
  2. ^ Shimabukuro, Moriyo. (2007). The Accentual History of the Japanese and Ryukyuan Languages: a Reconstruction, p. 1.
  3. ^ Miyake, Marc Hideo. (2008). Old Japanese: a Phonetic Reconstruction. p.的 66.,第66页,于Google图书
  4. ^ Heinrich, Patrick. "What leaves a mark should no longer stain: Progressive erasure and reversing language shift activities in the Ryukyu Islands,"页面存档备份,存于网际网路档案馆) First International Small Island Cultures Conference at Kagoshima University, Centre for the Pacific Islands, February 7–10, 2005; citing Shiro Hattori. (1954) Gengo nendaigaku sunawachi goi tokeigaku no hoho ni tsuite ("Concerning the Method of Glottochronology and Lexicostatistics"), Gengo kenkyu (Journal of the Linguistic Society of Japan), Vols. 26/27.
  5. ^ "While 'Altaic' is repeated in encyclopedias and handbooks most specialists in these languages no longer believe that the three traditional supposed Altaic groups, Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic, are related." Lyle Campbell & Mauricio J. Mixco, A Glossary of Historical Linguistics (2007, University of Utah Press), pg. 7.
  6. ^ "When cognates proved not to be valid, Altaic was abandoned, and the received view now is that Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic are unrelated." Johanna Nichols, Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time (1992, Chicago), pg. 4.
  7. ^ "Careful examination indicates that the established families, Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic, form a linguistic area (called Altaic)...Sufficient criteria have not been given that would justify talking of a genetic relationship here." R.M.W. Dixon, The Rise and Fall of Languages (1997, Cambridge), pg. 32.
  8. ^ "...[T]his selection of features does not provide good evidence for common descent" and "we can observe convergence rather than divergence between Turkic and Mongolic languages--a pattern than is easily explainable by borrowing and diffusion rather than common descent", Asya Pereltsvaig, Languages of the World, An Introduction (2012, Cambridge) has a good discussion of the Altaic hypothesis (pp. 211-216).
  9. ^ Georg et al. 1999:页面存档备份,存于网际网路档案馆) 73–74
  10. ^ Stefan Georg, Peter A. Michalove, Alexis Manaster Ramer, and Paul J. Sidwell (1999): "Telling general linguists about Altaic页面存档备份,存于网际网路档案馆)". Journal of Linguistics, volume 35, issue 1, pages 65–98.

外部连结

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